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The Old Grandparents:

Our indigenous roots


Guillermo Marin is a cultural promoter

concerned with the complex process

in cultural identity. He is the director of

Cultural Development , a project in

the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, Morelos

and Mexico City. He is the author of

Daany Beédxe: the spirit of the warrior;

The True History of the Profound México;

And To Read Carlos Castañeda; The Basic

Manual of the Cultural Promoter; Calmecac:

A Cultural Alternative; and Cultural Administration.

He is also the author of various tourist guides like:

Monte Alban; Mitla, the City of the Death; The

Sacred Valley of Tlacolula ; and, The Treasures

of Monte Alban and Oaxaca: spiritual reserve

of Mexico.


The Old Grandparents: our indigenous roots


By Guillermo Marin


Translated by Marie Eugenie La Rué de Eibich






The four anterior Suns

Sun of Water

Sun of Fire

Sun of Wind

Sun of Earth

The creation of the Fifth Sun

The creation of human beings

The "invention" of corn Education

The warriors of the flowery battle

The ancient gods

Tloque Nahuaque: For whom we live

Ometéotl: Divine duality

Tláloc: The giver of material life

Quetzalcóatl: The giver of spiritual life

Huehueteotl: The grandfather of the gods

Tonantzin: Our beloved mother

Mictlantecutli: The lord of death

Tezcatlipoca: Smoking mirror

The millenary civilization of Anáhuac

The Olmec great-grandfathers

The old Toltec grandfathers

The Zapotecs

The Mixtecs

The Mayas

The Nahuas

The Totonacs

The Purépechas

The young Aztec grandfathers

The centers of knowledge: Monte Albán


Palenque and the Lord of Pacal

Chichén Itzá

The people of México


To professor Ventura López

For his invaluable and generous support to the Oaxacan culture.


The fact of having no knowledge of the past nor of the place where they live, is the reason that many people leave to cross the border to seek work.

The day when our people get to know their ancestors, the day when they get to know that the places where they live were inhabited by famous men, the day when they learn that this land has given ample proof of ancient cultures, man will be firmly rooted.


He will take pride in his labor and will be conscious of the land where he lives. He will have the courage to defend his birth right and to work not only with enthusiasm, in his own land, but with love for the place where he was born.


That is the importance of history.


Juan Rulfo